This is part two of a three-part discussion on different causes of loss.
Hail–Hail damage is just that: damage caused by the direct action of hail to insured property. As with windstorm, the hail or some other covered peril must cause damage to the outside of the insured dwelling allowing hail to enter the premises in order for interior hail damage to be covered. As a result, if a window were left open, allowing hail to enter a building, that damage would not be covered.
Similarly, the hail peril does not cover loss to awnings, signs, radio or television antennas or aerials including wiring, masts or towers; canoes and rowboats; lawns, plants, shrubs or trees when located outside of the insured building.
Riot or Civil Commotion–Riot usually refers to a gathering of three or more people that results in the use of force or violence against individuals or property. Damage caused to the insured property due to riot is covered under this peril. Coverage includes direct loss caused by striking employees whether a riot occurs or not. Civil commotion can be defined as an uprising or disturbance by a large number of people. As with riot, damage caused to the insured property due to such an uprising would be covered under this peril.
Bouvier’s Law Dictionary summarizes five necessary elements of a riot: At least three persons must be involved; there must be a common purpose; there must be actual inception or execution of that purpose; there must be an attempt to help one another or to cooperate by force if necessary; there must be display of force or violence in such manner as to alarm a person of reasonable courage.
There may be no valid distinction between riot and civil commotion. “Civil commotion” has been described in courtrooms as “an uprising among a mass of people which occasions a serious and prolonged disturbance and an infraction of civil order, not attaining the status of war or armed insurrection. It requires the wild or irregular action of many persons assembled together.
Aircraft–The aircraft peril provides coverage from damage caused by aircraft, including self-propelled missiles and spacecraft. In a recent development, this cause of loss would also apply to unmanned air vehicles (drones).
Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language defines “aircraft” as “any machine or machines for flying, whether heavier or lighter than air; airplane, dirigible, balloon, helicopter, etc.”
This peril would apply to damage caused by the falling of an aircraft or any of its parts, on a covered dwelling and its contents.
Vehicles–Damage caused by direct physical damage with “vehicles” is covered by the vehicles peril. Damage caused by objects thrown by vehicles (such as stones, etc.) is covered as well. The vehicles peril does not include loss to a fence, driveway or walk caused by a vehicle owned or operated by the insured or a resident of the described location.
Smoke–Refers to “sudden and accidental damage from smoke.” Any sudden and accidental damage from smoke caused from any source except smoke from agricultural smudging or industrial operations would be covered. The terminology used makes clear that the damage must occur over a short period of time. A prime source of claims is furnace malfunction that results in the backup and blowing of smoke and grit into rooms through a central heating system.
Agricultural smudging would include damage from burn-off of growing materials on or near the covered premises and use of smudge pots to protect growing crops and trees from frost. Damage from smoke associated with businesses would include that caused by the “blowing out” of smokestacks in the course of periodic cleaning. Excluded damage would also include damage caused by smoke from malfunctioning industrial heating and processing equipment.
Volcanic Eruption–Damage caused to insured property by the eruption of a volcano is covered under the Dwelling Policy Program; however, loss caused by earthquake, land shock waves or tremors is excluded.
This peril is designed to address the damage caused by the eruption of a volcano, including the ensuing lava flow and airborne particles. In most policies, one or more volcanic eruptions that occur within a 72-hour period are considered to be a single covered event.